Trauma Clean FAQ

Trauma Clean offers a discreet and respectful clean up service with a quick efficient response to each client’s individual and often delicate situation.

Frequently Asked Questions

Needle Clean Up

What is a sharp?

Below is a list of items which are classed as sharps:

  • Syringes
  • Tubes
  • Test tubes
  • Phials
  • Hypodermic needles
  • Scalpels
  • Razors and razor blades
  • Scalpels
  • Knives
  • Scissors
  • Pipettes
  • Blades
  • Glass (broken or intact)
  • Plastics

Unbroken glass and plastics should be treated and handled with the same level of care as needles and blades if contaminated with biohazardous materials.

What are the dangers of sharps?

The main risk from a cut or wound caused by a sharp object is exposure to infections, especially blood-borne viruses (BBV). Contracting an infection depends on a number of factors, including the person’s natural immune system. The blood-borne viruses of most concern are:

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is an infectious illness caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of humans, and causes an inflammation called hepatitis. Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world and is passed from one person to the other through body fluids. Hepatitis B infections are either acute or chronic.

Acute infections can last between a few weeks and a few months. It is possible to recover from acute hepatitis B on your own. The infected person can remain healthy without any symptoms while the virus clears from the body. Some will not even know they have been infected. However, until the virus completely gone from the body, it is able to be passed on to others. Chronic hepatitis B is much more serious; if you contract this strain of the disease it will be with you throughout your life and there is a chance you will go on to develop permanent scarring of the liver, called cirrhosis, and you may eventually develop liver cancer.

Common Symptoms

Symptoms are similar to those of hepatitis A, which include:

  • Flu-like symptoms – tiredness, aches and pains, headaches and fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Stomach pains
  • Jaundice

Treatment

For chronic hepatitis B infection, there are 2 different types of treatment interferon and anti-viral drugs.

Interferon is a protein that is naturally produced by your body in response to a viral infection. It works by preventing the virus multiplying inside your cells. Injections of Interferon will prevent further damage to your liver.

There can be side effects to taking this treatment, including flu like symptoms, especially in the early stages. These side effects can be severe, so they are not suitable for long-term treatment.

Antiviral drugs can also help to stop the virus from multiplying in your body. They include:

  • Lamivudine
  • Tenofovir
  • Entecavir
  • Adefovir

Hepatitis C

Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus. It can cause inflammation and fibrosis of the liver tissue and occasionally significant liver damage. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure or worse complications, including liver cancer or life-threatening oesophageal varices and gastric varices.

Many people do not realise they have been infected with the virus as there are no symptoms. Flu-like symptoms can occur but can easily be mistaken for another illness. An estimated 180 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C with and estimated 200,000 to 500,000 people infected in England and Wales.

You can become infected with hepatitis C if you come into contact with the blood or, less commonly, body fluids of an infected person. The hepatitis C virus mutates very easily, which makes it hard to create a vaccine, and the virus has different genetic variants.

 Symptoms

In most cases, the initial infection doesn’t cause any symptoms. When it does, they tend to be vague and non-specific. Possible symptoms of Hepatitis C infection include:

  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss
  • Loss of appetite
  • Joint pains
  • Nausea
  • Flu-like symptoms
  • Anxiety
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Alcohol intolerance and pain in the liver area

The most common symptom experienced is fatigue, which may be mild but is sometimes extreme. Unlike Hepatitis A and B, Hepatitis C doesn’t usually cause people to develop jaundice.

About 20-30% of people clear the virus from their bodies but for about 75% of infected people, it lasts for more than 6 months, known as chronic hepatitis C. In these cases, the immune system has been unable to clear the virus and will remain in the body long term unless medical treatment is given. Most of these people have a mild form of the disease with intermittent symptoms of fatigue or no symptoms at all.

Around 1 in 5 people with chronic Hepatitis C develops cirrhosis of the liver within 20 years.

Treatment

People with chronic Hepatitis C infection should be seen by a hospital liver specialist who may recommend antiviral drug treatments either as single drug therapy or as combination therapy.

Blood tests are required to identify which strain of Hepatitis C infection is present and how well the liver is functioning, and a liver biopsy to establish whether cirrhosis is occurring.

Treatment is usually a combination of two drugs: Interferon (which is given as an injection) and Ribavirin (given as a capsule or tablet):

Interferon is a protein that is naturally produced by your body in response to a viral infection. It prevents the virus multiplying inside your cells.

Ribavirin is a type of antiviral drug that stops the Hepatitis C virus from spreading inside the body.

Treatment usually lasts for 6 or 12 months. A blood test is done after 4 weeks, and again after 12 weeks, to see how well you are responding. Treatment is usually stopped if you do not show a good response after 12 weeks.

These drugs offer the best chance to clear the virus from the body, and are often used together as dual or combination therapy which has been shown to be effective in 55% of cases. Some genetic variants of the Hepatitis C virus are more likely to respond than others and even if the virus isn’t completely cleared, the treatments can reduce inflammation and scarring of the liver.

However, there are side effects to these drugs that some people find difficult to tolerate.

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lentivirus that causes AIDS, a condition in humans where a weakened immune system allows life-threatening infections and cancers to swarm the body. Through the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk, HIV is able to be passed along to another person. Within these bodily fluids, HIV will be present as both free virus particles and a virus within infected immune cells. The 1st stage of HIV is known as primary HIV infection. Many people develop symptoms, but might not recognise them. The symptoms of HIV usually occur 2 to 6 weeks after infected with HIV.

Symptoms of primary HIV infection:

  • A blotchy rash
  • Fever
  • Joint pain
  • Muscle pain
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen glands
  • Tiredness

These symptoms are often very mild, so it is easily mistaken for a cold or glandular fever. However, it is unusual to get these symptoms in conjunction with a rash, so if you are concerned about the risk of HIV infection you should request a test from your GP.

After the primary symptoms, have dissipated, HIV will often not cause any further symptoms for many years. This is known as asymptomatic HIV infection. However, during this time, the virus will still be reproducing and is continuing to damage your immune system.

Treatment

If you are diagnosed with HIV, you will be referred to an HIV clinic and be offered counselling. You will need to undergo regular blood tests as part of your treatment.

The tests are used to measure your CD4 count (this is the number of CD4 cells in your blood) and your viral load (this is the amount of HIV in your blood).

This allows the HIV clinic to see the progression of the disease and judge the likelihood that you will develop a HIV-related infection.

As a rule:

  • A CD4 count of 500 or above – no risk of HIV-related infection
  • A CD4 count of less than 200 – high risk of serious HIV-related infection

There is no cure or vaccine for HIV. However, combination therapy slows the progression of the virus and can prolong life. A combination of medicines is needed because of the adaptive nature of the virus, as it can become resistant to the medication.

If a sharp penetrates the skin it will spread blood-borne pathogens; the spread of these pathogens is directly responsible for the transmission of these diseases. Risk of injury can occur from sharps waste if hazardous materials are not separated from normal rubbish and an individual will unknowingly come in contact with it.

In addition, if sharps waste is not disposed of correctly and removed from the environment, it can be subject to reuse and misuse (both intentional and unintentional). This is especially applicable in the areas of hypodermic needles and blades. The spread of disease through sharps waste is preventable through proper management and disposal.

If you suffer an injury from a sharp that is contaminated you will need to do the following:

  • Encourage the wound to gently bleed, ideally holding it under running water
  • Wash the wound using running water and plenty of soap
  • Don’t scrub the wound whilst you are washing it
  • Don’t suck the wound
  • Dry the wound and cover it with a waterproof plaster or dressing
  • Seek urgent medical advice, as effective prophylaxis (medicines to help fight infection) are available
  • Report the injury to your employer if necessary

Flood and Sewage Clean Up

What can I catch from raw sewage

The main danger raw sewage presents is from Pathogens, which are biological agents that spread disease result in in serious illnesses, the three most common pathogens found in sewage are bacteria, parasites, and viruses.

Pathogens can cause a wide variety of acute illnesses these include sickness, diarrhoea and infections. Although aggressive and unpleasant with treatment should pass after periods of time lasting several days or weeks usually without lasting effects, however in certain circumstances pathogens can cause serious long-term illnesses or even death.

Diseases that can be caught from raw sewage include:

  • Cryptosporidium and Giardia
  • Gram Negative Bacteria
  • Hepatitis A
  • Leptospirosis
  • Tetanus
What can 24 Seven do?

24 Seven understands the risks and dangers associated with sewage spills and offer an extensive and comprehensive sewage clearance service. This service ensures all the potentially hazardous untimely sewage spills are contained and safely removed in a quick and cost effective manner which is considerate to the environment.

24 seven sewage clearance service is used by a range of businesses and authorities throughout the UK to ensure the affected area is cleared of any possible risks and completely disinfected.

Flood Water Damage Clearance

Floods can happen at any time and can have a devastating effect. They are caused by the rising of ground water levels, burst water drains, hillside run-off from sudden rainfall and flooding from the overflowing of rivers and seas.

Flood water can cause varying degrees of damage depending on its severity. Floors, walls, furniture, soft furnishings and even building structures can be affected.

After a flood it is vital that the premises is assessed immediately and that all water affected items are removed and dried quickly. This helps to prevent and reduce any further structural damage, whilst limiting the chance of mould growth developing which can lead to health issues arising such as asthma and pneumonia.

Flood water can often contain hazardous sewage as excess water entering the sewers can cause them to rupture.

Deep Clean 24Seven Service

Trauma Clean 24Seven operate a specialist division to assist with the cleaning after a flood, Deep Clean 24Seven, we operate 24/7 for commercial or residential properties and are specialists in handling this very stressful time operating with care and speed to ensure your premises are returned as quickly as possible

24Seven provide trained staff who will clean and disinfect all areas and items to ensure you are returned to a safe environment for family and work colleagues, working swiftly to minimise disruption removing the health risks associated with flooding and raw sewage, we can also carry our odour elimination and if required provide swab test service with

  • 24/7 emergency call out
  • We provide a dedicated service for sensitive situations
  • We provide a rapid response time and support team in the event of unexpected flooding or sewage spills
  • 24Seven is compliant with all current legislation, Health and Safety Guidelines and guaranteeing legal and safe disposal of hazardous materials
How does fogging work?

Total Confidence: Fogging

To effectively remove bacteria from surfaces and the environment we utilise our fogging systems, this specialist technology will clean the air and all surfaces on contact ensuring you return to a safe property

Fogging will also remove the unpleasant odours always present after flooding leaving a fresh scent

How Does Fogging Work?

  • Fogging produces micro-droplets of disinfectant and biocides that float in the air for around 10 minutes after application.
  • Dispursing these micro-droplets into the air means the solution is able to reach areas that could not otherwise be reached by conventional cleaning methods.
  • Studies show application by aerosol significantly reduces the number of viable infectious pathogens, treating the surface and the air, killing these pathogens.
What can you do?

After fire, flooding is one of the most stressful and destructive elements contaminating everything in its path, there are things you can do to reduce the havoc created by floods. Flood clearance can be a dangerous task but there are steps you can take to assist damage but you should be aware of before you or anyone else begins the process of clearing up after extensive flooding. Here’s what you need to know:

  • Before you do anything, switch off your electricity supply at the mains and do not touch any outlets.
  • After they have been checked, keep your oil and gas central heating on at around 20 – 22 degrees for steady drying
  • Make sure you are protected – Flood water can contain sewage, chemicals and animal waste so ensure you are wearing protective clothing and wellington boots if you are around it.
  • Prevent further damage – Shovel away mud from walls evenly, making sure mud is not pressuring one side of the wall and not the other.

Trauma & Crime Scene Cleaning

Is there a personnel risk to self-cleaning?

Its critical to manage the situation quickly, there are significant health hazards associated with trauma emergencies.

There are strict guidelines and legislation to control the cleaning of crime and trauma scenes designed to ensure the safety of occupants within the property or locality, these extend to strict regulations confirming the disposal of potentially hazardous waste.

Viruses such as Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV are all transferred via bodily fluids which increases the risk, the treatment of contaminated areas by specialist technicians is the preferred option.

Who trains the teams?

Our teams are all trained under an extensive programme. Our staff have passed an extensive NACSC accredited training programme.

Using advanced decontamination and cleaning techniques, our teams ensure the area is safely disinfected and the removal of dangerous bodily fluid is performed in a controlled and sensitive manner.

What is fogging?

Disinfection: Fogging

Fogging assists our team by reducing infections in areas exposed to blood and other bodily fluids more effectively than normal contact cleaning methods can achieve.

What is Fogging?

  • Fogging produces micro-droplets of disinfectant and biocides that float in the air for around 10 minutes after application.
  • Dispersing these micro-droplets into the air means the solution is able to reach areas that could not otherwise be reached by conventional cleaning methods.
  • Studies show application by aerosol significantly reduces the number of viable infectious pathogens, treating the surface and the air, killing these pathogens.

Trauma clean 24 seven trauma and crime scene cleaning service provides a discreet and proficient disinfection and clean up solution whilst ensuring total client confidentiality is upheld. Using advanced decontamination and cleaning techniques the area is safety disinfected and the removal of dangerous bodily fluids is performed in a controlled and sensitive manner eliminating the risk and spread of infection.

24 seven’s team of trauma and crime scene cleaning specialists are on call 24 hours day 7 days a week providing rapid response to these difficult situations.

Clean Up After Death

What are the potential diseases from exposure to bodily fluids?

Extreme caution must be taken when dealing with bodily fluids and faeces due to the risk of infection and exposure to diseases.

Direct exposure to body fluid spills do not result in infection. In general, the risk of human infection from spills is very low. However, risk of contracting a disease from direct contact to blood, urine, vomit and faeces is based on many factors, including but not limited to the following:

  • The infectious agent involved
  • Duration and type of exposure
  • The amount of body fluids/faeces involved in the exposure
  • The amount of infectious agent in the body fluids/faeces at the time of exposure

The 3 main diseases that can be transmitted by exposure to body fluids are:

AIDS

Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV destroys a specific defence cell in the body called a CD4 helper lymphocyte. These lymphocytes are the defence cells in the body that fight infections and diseases; HIV destroys these all important lymphocytes. People with the virus will then begin to get serious infections that they normally wouldn’t. This is because they become immune deficient.

Symptoms

Late stage HIV infection is also known as AIDS infection. Left untreated, HIV will damage your immune system so much that you are likely to develop a serious, life-threatening condition. It typically takes about 10 years for the virus to damage the immune system in this way. Possible symptoms of a serious infection caused by a damaged immune system include:

  • Persistent tiredness
  • Night sweats
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Persistent diarrhoea
  • Blurred vision
  • White spots on your tongue or mouth
  • Dry cough
  • Shortness of breath
  • A fever of above 37C (100F) that lasts a number of weeks
  • Swollen glands that last for more than three months

AIDS-related illnesses, such as TB, pneumonia and some cancers, may occur. Many of these can be treated to some extent and some are likely to improve if you start treatment and your CD4 count increases.

Treatment

Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B is an infectious illness caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of humans, and causes an inflammation called hepatitis. Hepatitis B is one of the most common infectious diseases in the world and is passed from one person to the other through body fluids. Hepatitis B infections are either acute or chronic.

Acute infections can last between a few weeks and a few months. It is possible to recover from acute hepatitis B on your own. The infected person can remain healthy without any symptoms while the virus clears from the body. Some will not even know they have been infected. However, until the virus completely gone from the body, it is able to be passed on to others. Chronic hepatitis B is much more serious; if you contract this strain of the disease it will be with you throughout your life and there is a chance you will go on to develop permanent scarring of the liver, called cirrhosis, and you may eventually develop liver cancer.

Common Symptoms

Symptoms are similar to those of hepatitis A, which include:

  • Flu-like symptoms – tiredness, aches and pains, headaches and fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Weight loss
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Diarrhoea
  • Stomach pains
  • Jaundice

Treatment

For chronic hepatitis B infection there are 2 different types of treatment interferon and anti-viral drugs.

Interferon is a protein that is naturally produced by your body in response to a viral infection. It works by preventing the virus multiplying inside your cells. Injections of Interferon will prevent further damage to your liver.

There can be side effects to taking this treatment, including flu like symptoms, especially in the early stages. These side effects can be severe, so they are not suitable for long-term treatment.

Antiviral drugs can also help to stop the virus from multiplying in your body. They include:

  • Lamivudine
  • Tenofovir
  • Entecavir
  • Adefovir

HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lentivirus that causes AIDS, a condition in humans where a weakened immune system allows life-threatening infections and cancers to swarm the body. Through the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk, HIV is able to be passed along to another person. Within these bodily fluids, HIV will be present as both free virus particles and a virus within infected immune cells. The 1st stage of HIV is known as primary HIV infection. Many people develop symptoms, but might not recognise them. The symptoms of HIV usually occur 2 to 6 weeks after infected with HIV.

Symptoms of primary HIV infection:

  • A blotchy rash
  • Fever
  • Joint pain
  • Muscle pain
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen glands
  • Tiredness

These symptoms are often very mild, so it is easily mistaken for a cold or glandular fever. However, it is unusual to get these symptoms in conjunction with a rash, so if you are concerned about the risk of HIV infection you should request a test from your GP.

After the primary symptoms have dissipated, HIV will often not cause any further symptoms for many years. This is known as asymptomatic HIV infection. However during this time, the virus will still be reproducing and is continuing to damage your immune system.

Treatment

If you are diagnosed with HIV, you will be referred to an HIV clinic and be offered counselling. You will need to undergo regular blood tests as part of your treatment.

The tests are used to measure your CD4 count (this is the number of CD4 cells in your blood) and your viral load (this is the amount of HIV in your blood).

This allows the HIV clinic to see the progression of the disease and judge the likelihood that you will develop a HIV-related infection.

As a general rule:

  • A CD4 count of 500 or above – no risk of HIV-related infection
  • A CD4 count of less than 200 – high risk of serious HIV-related infection

There is no cure or vaccine for HIV. However, combination therapy slows the progression of the virus and can prolong life. A combination of medicines is needed because of the adaptive nature of the virus, as it can become resistant to the medication.

What are body fluids?

Body fluids are liquids originating from inside the bodies of living humans. They include fluids that are excreted or secreted from the body. Human blood, body fluids, and other body tissues are widely recognised as vehicles for the transmission of human disease.

Bodily fluid includes the following:

  • Aqueous humour and vitreous humour
  • Bile
  • Blood serum
  • Breast milk
  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Cerumen (earwax)
  • Endolymph and perilymph
  • Female ejaculate
  • Gastric juice
  • Mucus (including nasal drainage and phlegm)
  • Peritoneal fluid
  • Pleural fluid
  • Saliva
  • Sebum (skin oil)
  • Semen
  • Sweat
  • Tears
  • Vaginal secretion
  • Vomit
  • Urine
What is the importance of comprehensive disinfection?

Under the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002, employers have a legal duty to protect the health and safety of employees and anyone else that may be on the premises.

The clean-up of an incident involving biohazards is down to the person responsible for the premises. If left unattended, bodily fluids such as blood, urine and vomit will often seep into porous materials and areas which are not visible to the untrained eye, making the clean-up extremely difficult and the risk of exposure to infection much greater.

Trauma Clean Up Services

Trauma Clean 24 Seven is the specialist Bio-Hazard and Accident Clean Up department of the 24 Seven Group. Trauma Clean offers a discreet and respectful clean up service with a quick efficient response to each client’s individual and often delicate situation.

Our Trauma Clean Services cover many areas including:

Call us now on 0870 300 3232 for sensitive advice or a FREE QUOTE !

Trauma Clean 24 Seven Services